Table 3.

Prospective studies reporting molecular alterations in sputum

ReferenceAlterationsFollow-up*
p16INK4Ap53K-ras
Ronai et al. (17)5/40 (12.5%)
Belinsky et al. (25)5/26 (19.2%)3 y: no tumor
Kersting et al. (9)7/25 (28%)3/25 (12%)0/251 y: 3 tumors
Palmisano et al. (13)6/32 (18.7%)6 y: no tumor
Wang et al. (10)2/114 (1.7%)4 y: 1 tumor
Belinsky et al. (7)32/66 (35%)§
Zochbauer-Muller et al. (11)4/73 (5.5%)
This study39/765 (5.1%)15/803 (1.9%)0/506 (0%)3 y: 1 tumor
  • * All the tumors reported in the follow-up column arose in patients with previous molecular alterations detected in sputum.

  • Benign pulmonary disease.

  • Induced sputum.

  • § 25% with cellular atypia.