Table 2.

Arguments for and against disclosure of individual research results

A. Arguments Supporting Disclosure
    • Respect for persons
        i. Self-determination, autonomy
        ii. Consideration of value of research result to research subject
    • Beneficence/nonmaleficence
        i. Empowerment/proactive lifestyle changing behavior
        ii. Information should not be withheld when it provides evidence of immediate risk to or significant health information for individual participants
        iii. With-holding information is acceptable if:
    a. disclosure would predictably compromise the safety of a participant or third party, OR
    b. disclosure would compromise scientific validity
B. Arguments against Disclosure
    • Respect for persons
        □ Informed consent: participation under conditions of nondisclosure
    • Beneficence/nonmaleficence (maximize benefits, minimize harms)
        i. Research findings must be confirmed, validated, and proven clinically useful, otherwise risk false reassurances or unnecessary scares, doing more harm than good
        ii. In the United States, by law, only CLIA approved laboratories can provide information that will be used in treatment decisions (Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act, 1988).
    • Contrary to the intent of research
        i. To create generalizable knowledge, not necessarily to benefit individual research subject