Table 3.

Risk of lung cancer associated with previous lung disease among never smokers

StudyDesign/populationExposure groupReference groupRisk estimate (95% CI)Adjustment variables
Hinds et al. (166)Case-control:211 female lung cancer cases (never smokers);419 female population controls (never smokers);Study location: HI;Study years: 1968–1978History of pulmonary tuberculosis infection vs.No history of pulmonary tuberculosis infection8.2 (1.3–54.4)Age, birthplace, race
Zheng et al. (165)Case-control:415 male and female lung cancer cases (never smokers);714 male and female population controls (never smokers);Study location: Shanghai, China;Study years: 1984–1986Diagnosed with tuberculosis <20 years ago vs.Never diagnosed with tuberculosis3.5 (1.5–8.0)Age, education, gender
Diagnosed with tuberculosis ≥20 years ago vs.Never diagnosed with tuberculosis1.0 (0.7–1.5)Age, education, gender
Alavanja et al. (180)Case-control:186 female lung cancer cases (never smokers);234 female population controls (never smokers);Study location: MO;Study years: 1986–1991History of lung disease (asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pleurisy, pneumonia, tuberculosis) vs.No history of lung disease1.4None stated
History of asthma vs.No history of asthma2.7None stated
History of pneumonia vs.No history of pneumonia1.5None stated
History of tuberculosis vs.No history of tuberculosis“No association”(estimate not stated)None stated
History of pleurisy vs.No history of pleurisy“No association”(estimate not stated)None stated
History of chronic bronchitis vs.No history of chronic bronchitis“No association”(estimate not stated)None stated
Lan et al. (181)Case-control:139 female lung cancer cases (nonsmokers);139 female population controls (nonsmokers);Study location: Xuanwei, China;Study years: 1988–1990History of chronic bronchitis vs.No history of chronic bronchitis7.04 (1.79–27.77)Age, menstrual cycle length, age of menopause, smoky coal exposure
Ko et al. (182)Case-control:105 female lung cancer cases (never smokers);105 female hospital controls (never smokers);Study location: Taiwan;Study years: 1992–1993History of pulmonary tuberculosis infection vs.No history of pulmonary tuberculosis infection5.9 (1.3–25.9)Age, living near industrial district, cooking fuels, fume extractor use, vegetable consumption, SES, residential area, education
Shen et al. (183)Case-control:70 female adenocarcinoma cases (never smokers);70 female population controls (never smokers);Study location: Nanjing, China;Study year: 1993History of pulmonary tuberculosis or chronic bronchitis vs.No history of pulmonary tuberculosis or chronic bronchitis3.90 (1.00–20.94)Age, occupation, neighborhood, cooking fumes, family history of cancer
Santillan et al. (167)Meta-analysis:5 case-control studies;1,370 total male and female lung cancer cases;Study locations: United States, China;Publication dates: 1985–2001History of asthma vs.No history of asthma1.8 (1.3–2.3)Not stated
Neuberger et al. (184)Case-control:56 female lung cancer cases (never smokers);414 female population controls (never smokers);Study location: IA;Study years: 1993–1996Previous lung disease (bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, tuberculosis, silicosis, asbestosis, COPD) vs.No previous lung disease2.28 (1.24–4.18)Age, education, radon
Seow et al. (185)Case-control:126 female lung cancer cases (never smokers);162 female hospital controls (never smokers);Study location: Singapore;Study years: 1996–1998History of asthma, allergic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (all histological types) vs.No history of asthma, allergic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (all histological types)1.5 (0.8–2.6)Age, fruit and vegetable intake, birthplace, SHS exposure
History of asthma, allergic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (adenocarcinomas) vs.No history of asthma, allergic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (adenocarcinomas)1.6 (0.9–3.1)Age, fruit and vegetable intake, birthplace, SHS exposure

Abbreviation: SES, socioeconomic status.