Table 4.

Results of studies on exposure to radiation and risk of lung cancer among never smokers

StudyDesign/populationExposure groupReference groupRisk estimate (95% CI)Adjustment variables
Neugut et al. (173)Case-control:16 female lung cancer cases among breast cancer survivors (nonsmokers);348 female breast cancer survivor controls (nonsmokers);Study location: CT;Study years: 1986–1989Received radiation therapy for breast cancer vs.Did not receive radiation therapy for breast cancer3.2 (0.6–17.4)Age
van Leeuwen et al. (175)Case-control:From a cohort of 1,939 Hodgkin's disease patients:8 male and female lung cancer cases (nonsmokers);33 male and female controls (nonsmokers);Study location: The Netherlands;Study years: 1966–1986Received 1–5 Gy radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease vs.Received <1 Gy radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease0.99 (0.07–14.7)Age, gender, treatment center, date of Hodgkin's diagnosis
Received ≥5 Gy radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease vs.Received <1 Gy radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease2.5 (0.21–29.4) Ptrend = 0.43Age, gender, treatment center, date of Hodgkin's diagnosis
Hu et al. (144)Case-control:161 female lung cancer cases (never smokers);483 female population controls;Study location: Canada;Study years: 1994–1997Occupational radiation sources vs.No occupational exposure to radiation sources2.1 (0.7–6.8)Age, province, education, social class
Ford et al. (186)Case–control:41 female lung cancer cases among breast cancer survivors (never smokers);159 female breast cancer survivor controls (never smokers);Study location: TX;Study years: 1960–1997Received radiation therapy for breast cancer vs.Did not receive radiation therapy for breast cancer0.60Age, ethnicity, breast cancer histology, type of breast cancer surgery, date of breast cancer diagnosis
Boffetta et al. (187)Case–control:209 male and female lung cancer cases (never smokers);976 male and female hospital and population controls (never smokers);Study location: Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia;Study years: 1998–20021–30 occupational X–ray examinations vs.No occupational X-ray examinations1.22 (0.73–2.03)None stated
>30 occupational X-ray examinations vs.No occupational X-ray examinations2.30 (1.15–4.57)None stated
Prochazka et al. (174)Case series:82 women diagnosed with breast cancer and then subsequent lung cancer (nonsmokers);Study location: Sweden;Study years: 1958–2000Received ipsilateral radiation therapy for breast cancer (breast and lung cancer on same side) vs.Contralateral radiation dose to lung ≤15% of the ipsilateral dose (lung on opposite side of breast cancer served as control)0.9 (0.37–2.22)None stated

Abbreviation: Gy, gray.