Table 3.

Key biomarkers of differences in lung cancer between ever smokers and never smokers

BiomarkerNever smokersReference
TP53 mutation spectrumLower frequency of G:C to T:A mutationsHainaut et al. (102)
Lower frequency of mutationsVahakangas et al. (43)
Lower frequency of mutations at hotspotsToyooka et al. (98)
KRAS mutationsLower frequencyKosaka et al. (36); Tam et al. (39)
Lower frequency of transversionsRiely et al. (44)
STK11 (LBK1) mutationsLower frequencyKoivunen et al. (49)
EGFR mutationsHigher frequencyMitsudomi et al. (148); Shigematsu et al. (23, 41)
HER2 mutationsHigher frequencyShigematsu et al. (38)
EML4-ALK translocationsHigher frequencyWong et al. (50)
N-tyr expressionHigher levelLe Calvez et al. (111)