Table 1.

Targeting metabolic pathways in melanoma

1. Block excretion of acid from cell (cell suicide approach)
    Proton pump inhibitors (with or without NAC)
    Inhibition of monocarboxylic transporters MCT 1-4
    Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in cell membranes (IX and XII) by aromatic sulfonamides
2. Reduce glycolysis and lactate production
    DCA, an inhibitor of PDK that blocks conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
    TLN232, a cyclic heptapeptide inhibitor of the embryonic M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase
    Topotecan inhibition of HIF-1α expression
3. Depletion of energy sources for the tumor
    3-Br-PA—depletes cells of ATP
    2-DG—inhibits hexokinases
    Etomoxir—inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation
    Cerulenin—small molecular weight inhibitor of fatty acid synthase