Table 2.

Classification of TKI resistance

BCR-ABL1 IndependentBCR-ABL1 Dependent
Patient relatedIncreased expression of BCR-ABL1
    Poor complianceMutations in the ABL-kinase domain
Pharmacological
    Poor intestinal absorption-
    Drug interactions-
    Binding with plasma components-
Leukaemia cell related
    Heterogeneity of CML cells-
    Reduced levels of transporter (hoct1)-
    Increased levels of exporter (ABCB1, ABCG2)-
QSCs-
Clonal evolution-
SRC overexpression-