Table 1.

Prostaglandin pathway

ProteinRoleGene
Cyclooxygenase 1/prostaglandin H2 synthase 1Involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2. They exist in the following two forms: as COX-1, which is constitutively expressed in most tissues, and COX-2, which is inducible and regulated by mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines.COX1/PTGS1
cyclooxygenase 2/prostaglandin H2 synthase 2COX2/PTGS2
Prostaglandin E synthaseConverts prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin E. Its actions are mediated through the EP receptors, which are G-protein-coupled receptors that activate second messenger systems within the cell.PTGES
Prostacyclin synthaseConverts prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin.PTGIS
Prostaglandin D2 synthase (brain)Converts prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin D2.PTGDS
Prostaglandin D2 synthase (hemopoietic)Converts prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin D2.PGDS
Thromboxane synthaseConverts prostaglandin H2 to thromboxane.TBXAS1
  • NOTE: Designed by Phillip Ball, M.A., University of Cambridge.