Table 2.

Case-control study results

(A) TMEM density
Metastatic cohort (n = 30)Nonmetastatic cohort (n = 30)P
Median (5th percentile, 95th percentile)105 (28.3, 221)50 (13.1, 130)0.00006
(B) Increase in risk of metastasis per 10-unit increase in TMEM
Adjusted for
Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)
(Unadjusted)1.9 (1.1-3.4)
Age at diagnosis1.9 (1.1-3.4)
Tumor grade1.9 (1.1-3.4)
Tumor size1.9 (1.1-3.3)
Lymphovascular invasion1.5 (0.95-2.3)
Lymph node metastasis1.9 (1.0-3.6)
Estrogen receptor status2.0 (1.1-3.7)
Progesterone receptor status1.9 (1.0-3.6)
HER-2/neu status2.2 (1.1-4.7)
  • NOTE: TMEM density was significantly higher in the group of patients who developed distant metastasis compared with those with localized breast cancer (A). Additionally, for every 10-unit increase in TMEM, the odds of metastasis almost doubled (B). This estimate was robust to adjustment (separately) for the commonly used prognostic criteria listed in the table, including tumor grade, emphasizing that TMEM is not a surrogate for grade and may be a useful new independent prognostic factor.