Table 4.

Association between dietary fish intake and aggressive prostate cancer

FishFrequency
Ptrend*
Never (reference)1-3/mo≥1/wk
Dark fish
    Cases/controls271/213145/17550/90
    Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.00.64 (0.48-0.86)0.43 (0.29-0.63)<0.0001
White fish§
    Cases/controls192/165205/22569/88
    Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.00.77 (0.58-1.03)0.66 (0.45-0.96)0.32
Shellfish
    Cases/controls296/265112/12058/93
    Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.00.81 (0.59-1.11)0.51 (0.35-0.74)<0.0001
Tuna
    Cases/controls158/153227/22981/96
    Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.00.92 (0.69-1.24)0.75 (0.51-1.09)0.04
Fried fish**
    Cases/controls186/194223/19857/86
    Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.01.10 (0.83-1.47)0.56 (0.37-0.86)0.03
  • * Calculated with actual values as a continuous variable.

  • Salmon, mackerel, and bluefish (broiled or baked).

  • Adjusted for calories, age, ethnicity, and institution (n = 944). Adjustment for total fat intake, body mass index, smoking, PSA screening, and family history of prostate cancer did not materially alter our results.

  • § Sole, halibut, snapper, and cod (broiled or baked).

  • Shrimp, lobster, crab, and oysters (not fried). Actual categories are never, once per month, and twice or more per month.

  • Canned tuna, tuna salad, and tuna casserole.

  • ** Fried fish, fish sandwich, and fried shellfish (shrimp and oysters).