Table 1.

Description of study cohorts

Name of cohortLocationType of cohortBiopsy algorithmBiopsy schemePrior screening
Indication for biopsyDecision for biopsy a clinical decision?
ERSPC GöteborgSwedenScreeningPSA ≥3 ng/mLNo6-core*No
Round 1
ERSPC GöteborgSwedenScreeningPSA ≥3 ng/mLNo6-core*Yes
Rounds 2-6
ERSPC RotterdamThe NetherlandsScreeningPSA ≥3 ng/mL or ≥4 ng/mL, depending on yearNo6-core*No
Round 1
ERSPC RotterdamThe NetherlandsScreeningPSA ≥3 ng/mL or ≥4 ng/mLNo6-core*Yes
Rounds 2-3
ERSPC TarnFranceScreeningPSA ≥3 ng/mLYesPrimarily 10- to 12-coreMixture
Round 1
SABORSan Antonio, TXScreeningPSA ≥2.5 ng/mL, abnormal DRE, or family historyYes10- to 12-coreMixture
Cleveland ClinicCleveland, OHClinicalElevated PSA, abnormal DRE, rapid rise in PSAYesPrimarily ≥8-coreMixture
ProtecTUnited KingdomScreeningPSA ≥3 ng/mLNo10-coreNo
TyrolAustriaScreeningPSA ≥1.25 ng/mL, percent free PSA, abnormal DREMost men with elevated PSA were biopsied6-, 10-, or 10- to 15-coreMixture
Durham VADurham, NCClinicalElevated PSA, abnormal DREYes6-, 10-, or 12-core Mixture
PCPTU.S.ScreeningPSA ≥4ng/mL or abnormal DRE for “for cause” biopsies; end of study biopsy offered to all menIn the case of “for cause” biopsiesPrimarily 6-coreYes

NOTE: Data were not received from the PCPT for this study. The relationship between risk and PSA for the PCPT was obtained using the PCPT risk calculator.

  • *In the case of an abnormality on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), a 7th core was directed to the lesion.

  • Varied by year of biopsy.

  • Not formally established as a screening cohort, but involved population-based PSA testing.