Table 1.

Histone modifications influencing DNA damage response

DDR stepHistone residue (Human)Type of modificationEnzyme
1. SignalingH2AX S139PhosphorylationATM/ATR, DNA-PK
H2A/H2AXUbiquitinationRNF8/RNF168
H4 K20MethylationSet8/Suv4–20
H3 K79MethylationDot1
H2AX Y142DephosphorylationEYA1
H4 K91Mono-ubiquitinationBBAP
H2AZ K126/133Sumoylationnot identified
2. OpeningH4/H2A(X)AcetylationTip60/yNuA4
H3 K9AcetylationGcn5, CBP/p300
3. RestoringH2AX S139DephosphorylationyPph3/hPP4, PP2A, PP6, Wip1
H3/H4 KDeactetylationSin3/Rpd3, Sir2, Hst1/3/4
H4 S1PhosphorylationCK2
H2B S14PhosphorylationSte20
H3 K56AcetylationyRtt109, CBP/p300, Gcn5
H3 K14, K23AcetylationGcn5
H4 K5, K12AcetylationHat1
H4 K91AcetylationHat1
H2A K119Mono-ubiquitinationRing1b/Ring2