Table 1.

Examples of clinical trials combining the autophagy inhibitor HCQ with anticancer therapies

ConditionInterventionPhaseSponsorsIdentifierTitle
Multiple myelomaHCQ + bortezomibI-IIUPenn, MillenniumNCT00568880A phase I-II trial of HCQ added to bortezomib for relapsed-refractory myeloma
Brain, central nervous system tumorsHCQ + temozolomide/RTI-IIUPenn, CTEP, NCINCT00486603A phase I-II trial of HCQ in conjunction with radiation therapy and concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme
Adult solid tumorsHCQ + temozolomideIUPenn, MerckNCT00714181A phase I study of HCQ in combination with temozolomide in patients with advanced solid tumors
Adult solid tumorsHCQ + temsirolimusIUPenn, PfizerNCT00909831A phase I study of HCQ in combination with temsirolimus in patients with advanced solid tumors
Adult solid tumorsHCQ + vorinostatISan Antonio, NCI, MerckNCT01023737A phase I pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of hydroxychloroquine in combination with vorinostat for the treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors
Prostate cancerHCQ + docetaxelIICINJ, NCINCT00786682A phase II study of docetaxel and modulation of autophagy with HCQ for metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer
Prostate cancerHCQIICINJ, NCINCT00726596Autophagic cell death in patients with hormone-dependent prostate-specific antigen progression after local therapy for prostate cancer
Breast cancerHCQ + ixabepiloneI-IICINJ, NCINCT00765765Phase I-II study of ixabepilone in combination with the autophagy inhibitor HCQ for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer
Lung cancerHCQ + bevacizumab carboplatin paclitaxelI-IICINJ, NCINCT00728845Modulation of autophagy with HCQ in combination with carboplatin, paclitaxel and bevacizumab in patients with advanced/recurrent non-small cell lung cancer: a phase I-II study
Advanced cancerHCQ + sunitinibICINJ, CTEP, NCINCT00813423Antiangiogenic therapy in patients with advanced malignancies: a phase I trial of sunitinib and HCQ
Pancreas cancerHCQ + gemcitabineIU. PittsburghNCT01128296Phase I-II study of preoperative gemcitabine in combination with oral HCQ in subjects with resectable stage IIb or III pancreatic adenocarcinoma
Renal cancerHCQIU. PittsburghNCT01144169Neoadjuvant study of preoperative HCQ in patients with resectable renal cell carcinoma

Abbreviations: CINJ, Cancer Institute of New Jersey; NCI, National Cancer Institute; RT, radiation therapy.