Table 1

Relationships between elevated COX-2 expression and clinical characteristics

Elevated COX-2 expression
Clinical featureNo. of casesPositiveNegativeP
All cases1309337
Age (yr)
Primary tumor (pT)
Nodal involvement (pN)
Disease stage
Smoking history
  • a One case with invasion to a vertebral body and three cases with an ipsilateral metastasis in the nonprimary tumor lobe.

  • b Seven male and 53 female cases without any history of active smoking.

  • c Current smokers and ex-smokers.