Table 1

Relationships between elevated COX-2 expression and clinical characteristics

Elevated COX-2 expression
Clinical featureNo. of casesPositiveNegativeP
All cases1309337
Age (yr)
 ≤627349240.207
 >63574413
Sex
 Male7253190.560
 Female584018
Primary tumor (pT)
 15435190.310
 2624913
 31064
 4a431
Nodal involvement (pN)
 08963260.853
 1963
 232248
Disease stage
 I8157240.983
 II862
 IIIA372710
 IIIBa431
Smoking history
 Never-smokersb6041190.453
 Ever-smokersc705218
  • a One case with invasion to a vertebral body and three cases with an ipsilateral metastasis in the nonprimary tumor lobe.

  • b Seven male and 53 female cases without any history of active smoking.

  • c Current smokers and ex-smokers.