Table 2

RT-PCR detection of CTC and BM micrometastases in PC using PSA and PSMA mRNA

Author (Ref.)MarkerSampleRT-PCR positive/Total (%)
Localized PCaMetastatic PCb
Katz et al. (42)PSA mRNABlood25/65 (38%)14/18 (78%)
Israeli et al. (41)PSA mRNABlood0/18 (0%)6/24 (25%)
PSMA mRNABlood13/18 (72%)16/24 (67%)
Seiden et al. (43)PSA mRNABlood3/41 (7%)11/35 (31%)
Ghossein et al. (27)PSA mRNABlood4/25 (16%)26/76 (34%)
Sokoloff et al. (44)PSA mRNABlood43/69 (62%)29/33 (88%)
PSMA mRNABlood12/69 (17%)13/33 (39%)
Corey et al. (45)PSA mRNABlood12/63 (19%)6/13 (46%)
BM45/63 (71%)10/13 (77%)
Wood and Banerjee (46)PSA mRNABM39/86 (45%)
  • a Localized PC includes stage A, B (clinically organ-confined disease only).

  • b Metastatic PC includes stage D1–D3 patients (D1, pelvic lymph node metastases; D2, distant metastases without prior hormonal therapy; D3, D2 disease refractory to hormonal therapy) in all the listed studies except in that of Israeli et al. (41) . In that article (41) , three patients with D0 disease (elevated serum tumor markers only) were also included as metastatic PC.