Therapy | VEGF^{a} expression Average (SD) | IL-8^{a} expression Average (SD) | MVD^{b} Median (range) | % apoptotic EC/Total EC^{c} Median (range) |
---|---|---|---|---|
Control | ||||
11 days | 172 (28) | 170 (28) | 37 (30–54) | 0 (0–12) |
18 days | 220 (26) | 191 (17) | 73 (53–90) | 0 (0–5) |
30 days | 151 (20) | 202 (32) | 56 (24–180) | 0 (0–6) |
Gemcitabine | ||||
11 days | 162 (21)^{d} | 168 (21)^{d} | 38 (31–64)^{d} | 0 (0–15)^{d} |
18 days | 150 (21)^{d} | 210 (35)^{d} | 69 (51–72)^{d} | 0 (0–5)^{d} |
30 days | 165 (33)^{d} | 204 (48)^{d} | 78 (60–89)^{d} | 10 (7–26)^{e} |
C225 | ||||
11 days | 97 (13)^{e} | 100 (13)^{f} | 27 (15–34)^{e} | 19 (0–40)^{e} |
18 days | 98 (13)^{e} | 94 (14)^{f} | 16 (14–44)^{f} | 69 (60–81)^{f} |
30 days | 110 (2)^{e} | 113 (20)^{f} | 19 (16–22)^{e} | 63 (60–67)^{f} |
C225+ gemcitabine | ||||
11 days | 109 (9)^{e} | 110 (9)^{e} | 22 (20–40)^{e} | 21 (0–43)^{e} |
18 days | 107 (12)^{e} | 109 (6)^{e} | 14 (11–18)^{f} | 62 (27–67)^{f} |
30 days | 114 (29)^{e} | 111 (32)^{e} | 9 (4–22)^{e} | 68 (61–100)^{f} |
^{a} VEGF and IL-8 cytoplasmic staining was evaluated by computer-assisted image analysis using 10 microscopic fields/tumor section at ×200 (0.033 mm^{2}) and is expressed as the ratio of tumor expression to normal pancreatic epithelium expression multiplied by 100.
^{b} The number of CD31-positive vessels was evaluated in 10 microscopic fields per tumor section at ×100 (0.159 mm^{2}) using the Optimas 6.0 computer-assisted image analysis software.
^{c} The percentage of TUNEL-positive endothelial cells was determined in 10 microscopic fields/tumor section at ×400 (0.011 mm^{2}) by evaluating the ratio between the number of TUNEL-positive endothelial cells/field and the total number of endothelial cells/field.
^{d} No significant difference compared with the control at the same time point.
^{e} P < 0.05 compared with the control at the same time point.
^{f} P < 0.002 compared with the control at the same time point.