Table 3

Factors predicting liver metastasis determined by Cox proportional hazards regression model

VariableHazard ratio95% CI*P
Age (yrs)
 ≤65
 >651.10.63–1.8>0.2
Gender
 Male
 Female0.80.36–1.7>0.2
Preoperative CEA
 ≤5 ng/ml
 >5 ng/ml1.20.62–2.3>0.2
Postoperative CEA
 <5 ng/ml
 >5 ng/ml1.30.23–4.1>0.2
Tumor histology
 Well differentiated
 Moderately/poorly differentiated1.40.50–3.9>0.2
Dukes’ stage
 A/B
 C2.10.81–5.40.18
Preoperative TGF-β1 levels
 ≤7.5 ng/ml
 >7.5 ng/ml3.0 1.2–7.20.02
Postoperative TGF-β1 levels
 <7.5 ng/ml
 >7.5 ng/ml9.5 3.7–24.6<0.001
  • a CI, confidence interval.