Table 2

Mechanisms of action of drugs used in clinical vs. pre-clinical correlations for the in vitro cell line model (Fig. 1)<$REFLINK>

Atypical cytotoxics are shown in bold.

DrugMechanism of action
AmonafideDNA intercalator
CI-921Acts on topoisomerase II
Didemnin B Not understood. Believed to act on protein synthesis
Elsamitrucin Not understood. It has been observed to inhibit topoisomerase I and II in in vitro experiments (relevance to in vivo uncertain). In cells in culture it has been observed to cause a cytostatic effect.
EpirubicinAttaches to DNA at G bases
FazarabineProbably inhibits DNA synthesis by incorporation into DNA.
Flavone acetic acid Has antivascular action in mice (probably not applicable to humans). Also believed to induce cell cycle arrest by generating reactive oxygen species that act on DNA.
MenogarilCauses cleavage of double-stranded DNA by inhibiting topoisomerase II
PiritreximInhibits dihydrofolate reductase
Rhizoxin Not fully understood. May interact with tubulin (different binding site than taxoids) and lead to cell cycle arrest. Also observed to act as an angiogenesis inhibitor.
TaxolMicrotubule destabilizing agent that causes apoptosis
TaxotereMicrotubule destabilizing agent that causes apoptosis
TeniposideDNA synthesis inhibition by stabilization of cleavable DNA complexes
TopotecanTopoisomerase I inhibitor
Fosquidone Unknown. Not a DNA binder or a topoisomerase inhibitor
TomudexThymidylate synthase inhibitor
TiazofurinInhibits 5′-phosphodehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme for guanine ribonucleotide synthesis